The 4 Elements That Makes Up A Personal Computer System

There are 4 elements that make up a personal computer system: the user, software, hardware and the electricity all working together for the whole system. Each of these elements is essential to the system itself.

The user is the person's who perform the task using the computer system. The nature of the task depends upon the application program or software that is needed to perform the task. The software that the user used requires certain hardware components to function properly.

The hardwares of the personal computer system are made up of its equipment that are usually connected (the computer, monitor, printer and so on). It is defined as hardwares because you can physically touch these components. The programs are called softwares since their function can only be used when the computer is turn ON. Software is a set of coded instructions that the computer uses in order to carry out the user's tasks.

The user can only use the computer when it is turned ON. Without any electrical power to run through the personal computer system, it will not function. The ability of the personal computer system to control its components is through a series of on / off signals.

Here is how it works, when a user tries to type a document or a letter using his / her personal computer. The first thing the user do is to turn ON the power for the computer. Choosing a Word Processor software in order to write the document. The user uses the hardware such as the keyboard to write the content of the document; The typed document is then displayed onto the monitor screen. After the user finished writing his / her document. The user will use the software to instruct the printer to print the document. The software works together with the hardware components (the keyboard, monitor and printer) to accomplish the task that the user requested.

All of the four elements: the electrical power, hardware, software and the user work together to make up a personal computer system.

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How Car Mechanics Use Technology

Do you know why it’s important to find a good mechanic or a good repair shop to repair your car? The reason: it could save you hundreds of dollars in parts and labor! When we say a “good mechanic” or a “good repair shop”, we’re referring to mechanics who are equipped with the latest technology. You don’t want to entrust your car to a shop with outdated machinery and equipment because it will take longer to arrive at a diagnosis. And the longer a mechanic takes to make a diagnosis, the larger your bill for labor!

Remember that car mechanics charge by the hour.

Car repairs can cover any one or a combination of the following (note that this is not a complete repair list).

• Air conditioning checks

• Air bag checks

• Electrical wiring

• Cables

• Clutch service and repair

• Transmission repair

• Wheel Alignment

• Suspension

• Brakes

• Heating system

• Oil and lubrication

• Battery

• Power windows

Much of the troubleshooting that mechanics use to diagnose a problem is facilitated by car repair technology.

Ever noticed how some lights on your panel come on when something’s wrong? In most cases, an experienced mechanic will know immediately what the problem is, but there are instances where it will take sophisticated technology to lead to an accurate diagnosis.

Sophisticated technology comes in many forms and one popular one is troubleshooting software. Companies like Auto Tech have a software program that car owners can use to find out what is ailing their vehicle.

Most car owners who were cynical about software programs before should seriously consider purchasing a reliable car troubleshooting software program. For instance, some programs start out by asking you to input your car make and model number, the year of the car and what kinds of equipment it has. The software features a large database of information about all cars in the market and a car owner simply follows the steps when prompted. It employs what the industry calls a “tree diagnosis” where logical steps take you through the entire diagnosis process.

After you’ve keyed in your car’s profile, you use the drop down menu to choose the symptoms that your car is exhibiting. For instance, if you choose “squealing brakes”, the program mimics the squealing of brakes and if that’s the sound you hear, you confirm it and the program recommends a series of steps.

You may not really want to use a troubleshooting software, but imagine how much time and money you could save if you spoke to the mechanic intelligently, letting him know that you’re in the know.

Students who are studying towards certification buy certain tools of the trade. A couple of examples are Snap On and Mac Tools. These two are the most popular in the United States and Canada.

Mechanics now have a wide range of technology tools to help them understand car problems better: digital multimeters (electronic measuring), boroscopes (testing heat exchangers), fuel diagnostic testers (testing and balancing fuel injectors) and other such new technologies.

New car mechanic technologies help shorten the learning curve and speed up diagnosis so that the car owner isn’t saddled with too many labor hours.

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How to Resolve “Memory Card Error” From Canon IXUS 130

Canon IXUS 130 is a sophisticated digital camera that has a resolution of 14.1 megapixels. The camera is inbuilt with almost all advanced features, including fully wide-angle 4x zoom lens and motion blur technology. The IXUS camera is compatible with SDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity) and SDXC (Secure Digital Extreme Capacity) cards, with storage capacity as high as 2TB.

Since the storage memory of the cards is huge, data loss from these cards is simultaneously huge. One of the main reasons for data loss from cards is corruption of these cards. In most cases, you receive an error message after your card gets corrupted. However, an updated backup allows you to overcome card corruption. It allows you to restore data. But in case of unavailability of backup, you can use recovery software to recover data from a corrupted card.

As a practical case, you view the below error message on Canon IXUS 130 while attempting to view some previously stored photos on your SDHC card:

“Memory Card Error”

Every single photo saved in the memory card becomes inaccessible after the above error message appears. In addition, no more photo can be saved on card. In short, the card can not be read or written upon.

Cause:

The above error message that makes all the photos inaccessible is primarily caused due to corruption of card. Few reasons that are accountable for the above error message are virus infection, interrupted read/write operation, and human errors.

Resolution:

The resolution for the above error message is formatting of memory card in the camera itself. The process deletes all the previously saved data and allows you to save new data. While formatting proves a good resolution for users who do not require the old data, it becomes fatal for users, like photographers, detective agents, etc, who save critical data in their memory card. However, recovering formatted data now-a-days is an easy process. To do so, you need to use an advanced third-party Photo Recovery Software. A Image Recovery tool is readily available on the Internet by just one single click.

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How Useful is CAD Software to Engineers and Architects?

The emergence of advanced technology has made people today dependent on machines. Using computers and software, for example, is a very common illustration of this. Computer experts are coming up with more and more software to make more and more jobs easier.

A more specific illustration of this can be found in the modern approach towards engineering and architecture. These days, professionals in these fields use CAD computer software which is a program that allows them to create designs faster, easier and with more accurate measurements. Aside from the convenience that CAD software brings, it also helps put architects and engineers ahead of their competitors. CAD, which can render designs that are two-dimensional or three dimensional, stands for Computer Aided Design and has been in use since 1982.

So how does CAD computer software work? And what does it do exactly to help engineers and architects? The program is actually multifaceted in the sense that there are many ways it can help. To make CAD work will require, however, a careful study of its features and the many ways it can be used. It is rather a complex yet flexible and highly functional program.

This article will not be enough to discuss the various ways that CAD works but pinpointing its advantages could give some very good ideas. One great advantage of CAD computer software is its easy-to-use tools in the creation and alteration of designs. Obviously, this is so much better than the old fashioned way of using a pencil and eraser directly on paper. This method of designing is obviously so much easier and engineers and architects simply have more time to finish other tasks. In other words, high productivity is going to be the main end result of using CAD.

Before the design is actually printed on paper, CAD also allows both the design professional and the client to preview what has been finished so far. Any alterations can be made simply by manipulating the drawing through the use of the software. With CAD, it is so much easier to spot errors because the designs can be rendered exactly as they would be in reality. Hence, modifications can be done even before printing, thus, allowing one to save.

With the tough competition that everyone has to face these days, it is wise to take advantage of new technologies that can help put them ahead in the race. While traditional methods hold a significant part in the history of design, advanced tools such as CAD software should only be welcomed as man’s way of furthering development in a field of expertise that he himself has created long ago.

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Benefits of an Android TV Box

The Android TV box is a useful piece of kit that connects to the TV via the HDMI port to offer most of the features of Android. This type of set up is very flexible and easily connects to most TVs with the right port and is a lot cheaper than a smart TV. Here are a few of the benefits of using the Android TV box:

Endless apps

One of the most appreciated benefits is the ability to use and install the endless apps that are now available on the Android operating system. By visiting the Google Play store using the internet connection, it is possible to install the latest apps related to not only multimedia content, but also audio editing applications, games, books, magazines, sending email, or signing into social media accounts, such as Facebook and Twitter.

TV support

By connecting the Android TV box to the TV at home via the internet; It is also possible to connect to other devices in the home, such as those that make use of technologies like Airplay, Miracast, DLNA, or others that function with Android. This makes it very flexible to share various types of multimedia with the TV. For instance, it is possible for an Android compatible tablet or smartphone to interact and control the TV while also giving the option to share files with a laptop or even watch a downloaded series or a movie on the large screen. Overall, this type of setup gives a simple gateway to get the internet on the TV.

Great price

The cost of upgrading a standard TV to benefit from all the possibilities of Android is relatively cheap compared to buying a smart TV. Plus, the combined standard TV and Android TV box can offer a lot more than a standard smart TV.

Regular updates

The Android operating system is updated on a regular basis, which means the latest version of a game, application, or system is always available. Plus, this is usually done automatically so there is no need to keep searching for updates when logged into the app store. This is significantly more convenient than a smart TV which can take a while to receive updates, especially when every brand of TV needs to have its own update created and released.

All in all, the Android TV Box makes it possible to enjoy the connectivity and versatility of Android on a standard TV set up.

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Why Architectural Drafting Is Common in Architectural Design

For architectural design projects, while there is the emphasis on using 3D models and architectural BIM modeling, the time-tested practice of using architectural drafting and 2D technical drawings is still commonplace in the AEC industry. Architectural drafting has evolved from the drawing board to computer-aided design and drafting (CAD) software programs. Drafting practices help to provide architectural construction drawings that include the technical details of architectural, structural and electrical elements required for the construction of a building. To understand the stage at which architectural drafting takes place, the workflow of a building design lifecycle must be considered.

The basic workflow of an architectural design project starts with the architect creating a conceptual plan which is usually modelled into architectural 3D models and rendered as photorealistic images for marketing and presentation to clients and customers.

Once the conceptual design is approved by the client, the design is then progressed into more detail and shared with other parties such as structural and MEP engineers. The way in which the design is progressed for the ‘design development’ phase by an architect lends itself to two options, either to develop a 3D model with more detail and then create subsequent sheets and details using a 3D tool such as Revit or AutoCAD, or as is still commonplace, to develop the concept design in 2D using more traditional methods. From the conceptual plans provided by architects and engineers, a drafter can convert these designs using CAD software programs to create technical drawings.

Architectural drafting is the process of creating technical drawings which include the floor plan, sections, elevations, detailed drawings and other documents in a construction drawing set (CD Set), which are typically required for the construction of a building.

The difference between Architectural Drafting and Modelling

Architectural drafting refers to creating 2D technical drawings and architectural construction drawings which are mainly used by contractors and consultants on site. Architectural 3D modelling refers to creating 3D models and renders of photorealistic images which are mainly used to present the architectural design for marketing purposes and then progressed from there to create the 2D technical drawings, in effect feeling like an extra stage (the 3D modelling element). The main software used for drafting, to create 2D technical drawings is AutoCAD while modellers use Revit and ArchiCAD to create 3D models and rendered images. Architectural draftsmen need to have basic 2D and 3D software knowledge such as AutoCAD and knowledge of technical codes and drafting guidelines specified by organisations such as American National Standards Institute (ANSI), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Design Drafting Association (ADDA), Public Works Government Services Canada (PWGSC), National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), BSI British Standards Institute and Standards Australia Code AS1100. Architectural modellers need to have a deeper understanding of architectural, building and construction concepts and experience with 3D software programs such as Revit and ArchiCAD.

Why Architectural Drafting is still Common in Architectural Design Practices

Architectural 3D models are preferred by architects and designers because they provide a 3D perspective of the conceptual plan of the building; it makes management of project data easier and allows for design changes on the go. However, construction companies that require technical specifications of the architectural project prefer 2D technical drawings and architectural construction drawings because they provide accurate details required for construction, most of the resources involved in construction understand 2D drawings, there are no issues with compatibility of software as compared to when using 3D models and it is a suitable solution to meet the budgetary requirements of a construction project. Some of the reasons why architectural drafting is preferable by several construction companies include:

• Suitable as per construction requirements – In some building projects, 2D technical drawings or architectural CAD drawings are sufficient to complete construction, where additional information that 3D models provide is not required. A construction drawing set (CD set) includes all the floor plans, elevations, sections and detailed drawings required for construction. Technical codes, symbols and other additional information such as the type of material are provided in technical drawings. Therefore, construction companies find 2D technical drawings sufficient to successfully complete construction.

• Availability of technical resources – Not all companies have technical resources to deliver 3D models. While drafting teams are qualified to work on AutoCAD to deliver 2D technical drawings, they may not be qualified to work on Revit to deliver 3D models. In the construction industry, the availability of drafting teams who can provide 2D technical drawings is ample compared to companies that provide 3D modelling services.

• Availability of software – The adoption of new software and practices is gradual and slow in the construction industry. The software used in building projects varies from country to country. Some countries use ArchiCAD and AutoCAD Architecture instead of Revit, therefore leading to the incompatibility of project data. 2D technical drawings in AutoCAD are widely used and compatible making it a preferred option to Revit 3D models.

• Suitable as per cost and budgetary requirements – In most cases, construction companies do not find the need to invest more in 3D models, when drafting solutions provide detailed technical drawings which are sufficient and relevant enough for construction. There is also the added investment in resources that are competent enough to understand and implement architectural 3d models on-site.

While architectural 3D modelling and BIM modelling provide design-related information typically required for architects and designers in the design stage of the building project lifecycle, architectural drafting provides technical drawings that are not just about aesthetics but about high-performance detailing of construction elements. Architectural CAD drawings specifically communicate the design intent and help in the construction of buildings which companies find relevantly sufficient over 3D models. Even as construction companies will need to eventually evolve to combining the use of 2D technical drawings and architectural 3D models until then, the time-tested practice of using architectural drafting and drawing solutions in construction is here to stay.

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Effective Job Numbering And Cost Code Systems

Overview

Many companies have a sequential job numbering system, but have you considered the possibility of altering the numbering sequence so you can pull reports for a certain type of project or projects by year and the informational reports that could be generated?

And, are your cost codes sufficient to cover the details you need to see in your reports? Do you lump all site related travel and subsistence into one code, or do you have the details of hotels vs. Housing and meals vs. Subsistence?

Not all software programs are sophisticated enough to allow for customized job type numbering sequences; However, even the basic job cost software systems can be adapted to allow for an advanced numbering system.

Specific Job Numbering Sequences

Advanced reporting techniques can yield a wealth of information. How jobs are numbered so ease the reporting burden so projects of a certain type and / or year can be easily excluded from the software. Samples of numbering sequences could be based on the following criteria:

· Year project was awarded

· Public vs. Private works

· Commercial vs. Residential

· Construction vs. Service

· Division (s) of the Company

If your software allows, you may start the job number with the year awarded, followed by the job type and then a sequential number. Management may request a report for gross revenue on all the commercial contractor improvement projects in 2013. If you have a numbering sequence, this would be an easy report to pull, rather than go through all your 2013 projects and manually add the numbers to obtain the Results.

The job cost master file is another good source of information if all fields are completed and there is a common usage of custom fields that can be used to pull reports.

Cost Codes – Too few or Too Many?

Often we see cost code lists that spill onto multiple pages. Most job cost software programs allow for use of one cost code for multiple categories (Labor, Materials, Direct Job Expense, etc.).

A good source to use for establishing a cost code list is the bid recap and detail sheets used when bidding projects. This will yield the different stages of labor, types of materials to install associated with that labor, the different types of equipment to be rented, categories of subcontractors and the details of direct job costs to be incurred.

These activities can be "numbered" to establish a list of cost codes. If the software allows for use of one code across multiple categories, give thought to not duplicating descriptions, but arranging codes together by "type" of work being performed, rented equipment, direct job expenses, work typically contracted out, etc.

Keeping your cost codes consistent will then allow even more sophisticated reporting – management can now ask for all commercial contractor improvement projects in 2013 and the total cost of crane rentals for the year on those specific projects.

Why Go Through These Steps?

History is a great source of information when anticipating the future. Cost details can be analyzed for specific types of jobs when preparing to bid a similar project. Historical information can be analyzed for margins on certain types of projects or a division of the company to make decisions on whether or not a certain type of work is profitable.

If fields are available in the job cost master file, reports can be declined not only by type and year but by project manager as well to look at performance and estimate vs. Actual results.

Conclusion

When developing any numbering system, consistency is important in order to maximize the reporting results. Management should determine the information they wish to see and develop job numbers and cost codes that will allow for advanced reporting not only to themselves but provide useful information to estimating, project managers and accounting as well.

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The Importance Of Excel In The Workplace

Excel is perhaps the most important computer software program used in the workplace today. That’s why so many workers and prospective employees are required to learn Excel in order to enter or remain in the workplace.

From the viewpoint of the employer, particularly those in the field of information systems, the use of Excel as an end-user computing tool is essential. Not only are many business professionals using Excel to perform everyday functional tasks in the workplace, an increasing number of employers rely on Excel for decision support.

In general, Excel dominates the spreadsheet product industry with a market share estimated at 90 percent. Excel 2007 has the capacity for spreadsheets of up to a million rows by 16,000 columns, enabling the user to import and work with massive amounts of data and achieve faster calculation performance than ever before.

Outside the workplace, Excel is in broad use for everyday problem solving.

Let’s say you have a home office. You can use Excel to calculate sales tax on a purchase, calculate the cost of a trip by car, create a temperature converter, calculate the price of pizza per square inch and do analysis of inputted data. You can track your debt, income and assets, determine your debt to income ratio, calculate your net worth, and use this information to prepare for the process of applying for a mortgage on a new house. The personal uses for Excel are almost as endless as the business uses for this software – and an Excel tutorial delves into the practical uses of the program for personal and business use.

The use of spreadsheets on computers is not new. Spreadsheets, in electronic form, have been in existence since before the introduction of the personal computer. Forerunners to Excel and Lotus 1-2-3 were packages such as VisiCalc, developed and modeled on the accountant’s financial ledger. Since 1987, spreadsheet programs have been impacting the business world. Along the way, computerized spreadsheets have become a pervasive and increasingly effective tool for comparative data analysis throughout the world.

Today, end users employ Excel to create and modify spreadsheets as well as to author web pages with links and complex formatting specifications. They create macros and scripts. While some of these programs are small, one-shot calculations, many are much more critical and affect significant financial decisions and business transactions.

Widely used by businesses, service agencies, volunteer groups, private sector organizations, scientists, students, educators, trainers, researchers, journalists, accountants and others, Microsoft Excel has become a staple of end users and business professionals.

The beauty of Excel is that it can be used as a receiver of workplace or business data, or as a calculator, a decision support tool, a data converter or even a display spreadsheet for information interpretation. Excel can create a chart or graph, operate in conjunction with Mail Merge functions, import data from the Internet, create a concept map and sequentially rank information by importance.

Excel offers new data analysis and visualization tools that assist in analyzing information, spotting trends and accessing information more easily than in the past. Using conditional formatting with rich data display schemes, you can evaluate and illustrate important trends and highlight exceptions with colored gradients, data bars and icons.

Indeed, Excel can be customized to perform such a wide variety of functions that many businesses can’t operate without it. Excel training has become mandatory in many workplaces; in fact, computer software training is a must for any workplace trying to keep up with the times.

Let’s say you’re an employer with 97 workers, 17 of whom called in sick today, and you want to know the percentage represented by absentees. Excel can do that. You can learn Excel and use it to determine the ratio of male to female employees, the percentage of minorities on the payroll, and the ranking of each worker by compensation package amount, including the percentages of that package according to pay and benefits. You can use Excel to keep track of production by department, information that may assist you in future development plans. You can create additional spreadsheets to track data on vendors and customers while maintaining an ongoing inventory of product stock.

Let’s say you want to know your business production versus cost. You don’t have to be a math wiz – you just have to learn Excel. Excel allows you to input all of the data, analyze it, sort it according to your customized format, and display the results with color, shading, backgrounds, icons and other gimmicks that offer time-saving assistance in later locating precisely the information desired. If this spreadsheet is for presentation purposes, Excel helps you put it together in such a visually appealing way that the data may seem to pop and sparkle.

The single most important thing an employer may do is learn Excel – it is one of the most essential tools of the workplace.

Excel and Microsoft are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation, registered in the U.S. and other countries. Lotus is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.

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Can You Upgrade a Maya Student Version to a Full Commercial Edition?

The Maya 3D software from Autodesk has long-been a staple tool for the production of the highest level of Visual Effects and animation for Oscar-winning blockbuster movies, TV shows and video games.

Students who are looking to secure themselves commercial work upon graduation these days typically need to show some familiarity with this software…ideally the more the better, since most companies these days use Maya as their main software package, and many have it deeply integrated into their own proprietary pipelines and tools – meaning that the situation is unlikely to change for the foreseeable future.

Students who take the opportunity currently afforded them of purchasing a copy of the Maya Student Edition do well since they are able to improve their skillset on the full Unlimited version of the software, and do so at a huge discount (the student edition typically retails for around $350).

However, a number of students wonder if they also qualify for a discount later on if they wish to upgrade to a full commercial edition of the Maya software. Jumping from graduation to commercial work can be a challenge, so any way to alleviate the expense of setting yourself up as a freelancer is more than welcome…but can it actually be done?

Upgrade Maya Student Edition To Commercial License?

Yes, you’ll be pleased to know that there is a program available where current owners of a Maya student license are able to upgrade to the full commercial license at a massive discount of around 60%…in other words, a full commercial license of Maya would typically cost around $3,900, but student license holders are able to upgrade their current license to a full commercial one for just $1,300.

This is huge, and can be a real lifesaver for folks who want to go it alone and start their own freelance business but are wary of the huge costs involved.

In fact, if you’re smart about it and don’t mind a little negotiation, the license could even be purchased with a down-payment from your first client before you even begin working on their project.

Such a huge discount on the student to commercial upgrade is a great incentive for students, especially at this economic time, and it also makes purchasing the Maya student edition in the first place a sensible option, since you get access to these kinds of discounted upgrades.

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Medical Coding History – From Paper to Medial Coding Software

If we define medical coding as the assignment of alphanumerical characters to diagnoses, diseases, and treatments, then medical coding has been traced back to the 1600s in England with the London Bills of Mortality. A more standardized system of coding was developed for classifying death at the tail end of the 19th century. In 1893, Jacque Bertillon, a statistician, created the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death, a system which was eventually adopted by 26 countries at the beginning of the 20th century. Shortly after the Bertillon Classification system was implemented, people began discussing the possibility of expanding the system beyond mortality as a way of tracking diseases.

By the middle of the 20th century, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a goal of a single global classification system for disease and mortality, entitled the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD). This classification system is updated every 10 years. The latest revision, ICD-10, is scheduled for adoption in the United States in 2013.

What started out as a small set of medical codes has evolved into a complex system that was initially standardized by the American Medical Association back in 1966 with current procedure codes (CPT) codes that are updated annually.

In the late 1970s, the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) was developed based on CPT. HCPCS has three levels of codes: Level One is the original CPT system. Level Two codes are alphanumeric and include non-physician services such as ambulances and other transportation as well as patient devices such as prosthetic devices. Level Three codes were developed as local codes, and were discontinued in 2003 in order to keep all codes relevant worldwide.

Recently, medical coding systems have been expanded to include other medical specialties. For example, there are coding systems related to disabilities, the dental field, prescription drugs, and mental health.

As the coding systems have become more complex and diverse, the need for training of medical coders has grown exponentially. Private training schools and public colleges throughout the country have developed certification programs. In order to be awarded a certificate, students must obtain a two-year degree from an accredited medical coding school and pass an exam given by the AHIMA.

Over the past 20 years, many coding processes have shifted from a paper-based system to a computer-based system using medical coding software and medical billing software. Many companies sell complete medical software-based coding solutions and myriad of products for specific medical disciplines, such as products that are specifically tailored to skilled nursing facilities, physicians, hospitals, surgery, cardiology, and more.

As medical facilities and professionals begin preparing for the conversion to ICD-10 in 2013, the need for more sophisticated medical coding software solutions and qualified medical coders will continue to grow.

CPT is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.

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